One-third of the US population is obese. Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. This condition is very common, and patients with sleep apnea are at risk of major complications from sedation. This JAMA Performance Improvement podcast reviews a case of a patient who did poorly after he was sedated for a medical procedure. Interviewees include Joshua Pevnick, MD, MSHS, from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and Jason R. Farrer, MD, from Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation.